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Chapter 09.10. LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS

Sec. 09.10.010. General limitations on civil actions.

A person may not commence a civil action except within the periods prescribed in this chapter after the cause of action has accrued, except when, in special cases, a different limitation is prescribed by statute.

Sec. 09.10.020. When action commenced. [Repealed, Sec. 1 ch 27 SLA 1966. For present law, see Civ. R. 3].

Repealed or Renumbered

Sec. 09.10.030. Actions to recover real property.

(a) Except as provided in (b) of this section, a person may not bring an action for the recovery of real property or for the recovery of the possession of it unless the action is commenced within 10 years. An action may not be maintained under this subsection for the recovery unless it appears that the plaintiff, an ancestor, a predecessor, or the grantor of the plaintiff was seized or possessed of the premises in question within 10 years before the commencement of the action.

(b) An action may be brought at any time by a person who was seized or possessed of the real property in question at some time before the commencement of the action or whose grantor or predecessor was seized or possessed of the real property in question at some time before commencement of the action, and whose ownership interest in the real property is recorded under AS 40.17, in order to

(1) quiet title to that real property; or

(2) eject a person from that real property.

Sec. 09.10.040. Action upon judgment or sealed instrument in 10 years.

(a) A person may not bring an action upon a judgment or decree of a court of the United States, or of a state or territory within the United States, and an action may not be brought upon a sealed instrument, unless the action is commenced within 10 years.

(b) [Repealed, Sec. 54 ch 132 SLA 1998].

Sec. 09.10.050. Certain property actions to be brought in six years.

Unless the action is commenced within six years, a person may not bring an action for waste or trespass upon real property.

Sec. 09.10.053. Contract actions to be brought in three years.

Unless the action is commenced within three years, a person may not bring an action upon a contract or liability, express or implied, except as provided in AS 09.10.040 , or as otherwise provided by law, or, except if the provisions of this section are waived by contract.

Sec. 09.10.054. Limits on when certain design, construction, and remodeling actions may be brought.

(a) For actions covered under AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899, a claimant may not begin an action against a construction professional unless the notice of claim under AS 09.45.881 is given within one year after the claimant discovers the defect that is the subject of the action, except that the action may not be begun more than 10 years after substantial completion of the dwelling construction or remodeling that contains or implements the alleged defect.

(b) A limitation imposed under this chapter for an action under AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899 is tolled between the time the claimant serves notice under AS 09.45.881 and the time the claimant should reasonably understand that settlement under the procedures in AS 09.45.881 - 09.45.899 will not succeed.

(c) In this section,

(1) "action," "claim," "construction professional," and "dwelling" have the meanings given in AS 09.45.899 ;

(2) "substantial completion" means the date when the construction or remodeling is sufficiently completed to allow the owner of the dwelling or a person authorized by the owner to use or occupy the dwelling or the improvement to the dwelling in the manner for which the dwelling or improvement was intended.

Sec. 09.10.055. Statute of repose of 10 years.

(a) Notwithstanding the disability of minority described under AS 09.10.140 (a), a person may not bring an action for personal injury, death, or property damage unless commenced within 10 years of the earlier of the date of

(1) substantial completion of the construction alleged to have caused the personal injury, death, or property damage; however, the limitation of this paragraph does not apply to a claim resulting from an intentional or reckless disregard of specific project design plans and specifications or building codes; in this paragraph, "substantial completion" means the date when construction is sufficiently completed to allow the owner or a person authorized by the owner to occupy the improvement or to use the improvement in the manner for which it was intended; or

(2) the last act alleged to have caused the personal injury, death, or property damage.

(b) This section does not apply if

(1) the personal injury, death, or property damage resulted from

(A) prolonged exposure to hazardous waste;

(B) an intentional act or gross negligence;

(C) fraud or misrepresentation;

(D) breach of an express warranty or guarantee;

(E) a defective product; in this subparagraph, "product" means an object that has intrinsic value, is capable of delivery as an assembled whole or as a component part, and is introduced into trade or commerce; or

(F) breach of trust or fiduciary duty;

(2) the facts that would give notice of a potential cause of action are intentionally concealed;

(3) a shorter period of time for bringing the action is imposed under another provision of law;

(4) the provisions of this section are waived by contract; or

(5) the facts that would constitute accrual of a cause of action of a minor are not discoverable in the exercise of reasonable care by the minor's parent or guardian.

(c) The limitation imposed under (a) of this section is tolled during any period in which there exists the undiscovered presence of a foreign body that has no therapeutic or diagnostic purpose or effect in the body of the injured person and the action is based on the presence of the foreign body.

Sec. 09.10.060. Actions for certain statutory penalties to be brought in three years.

(a) [Repealed, Sec. 2 ch 70 SLA 1996].

(b) A person may not bring an action upon a statute for penalty or forfeiture where the action is given to the party aggrieved or to that party and the state unless the action is brought within three years, except where the statute imposing it prescribes a different limitation.

(c) [Renumbered as AS 09.10.065 ].

Sec. 09.10.065. Commencement of actions for acts constituting sexual offenses.

(a) A person may bring an action at any time for conduct that would have, at the time the conduct occurred, violated provisions of any of the following offenses:

(1) felony sexual abuse of a minor;

(2) felony sexual assault; or

(3) unlawful exploitation of a minor.

(b) Unless the action is commenced within three years of the accrual of the claim for relief, a person may not bring an action for conduct that would have, at the time the conduct occurred, violated the provisions of any of the following offenses:

(1) misdemeanor sexual abuse of a minor;

(2) misdemeanor sexual assault;

(3) incest; or

(4) felony indecent exposure.

Sec. 09.10.070. Actions for torts, for injury to personal property, for certain statutory liabilities, and against peace officers and coroners to be brought in two years.

(a) Except as otherwise provided by law, a person may not bring an action (1) for libel, slander, assault, battery, seduction, or false imprisonment, (2) for personal injury or death, or injury to the rights of another not arising on contract and not specifically provided otherwise; (3) for taking, detaining, or injuring personal property, including an action for its specific recovery; (4) upon a statute for a forfeiture or penalty to the state; or (5) upon a liability created by statute, other than a penalty or forfeiture; unless the action is commenced within two years of the accrual of the cause of action.

(b) A person may not bring an action against a peace officer or coroner upon a liability incurred by the doing of an act in an official capacity or by the omission of an official duty, including the nonpayment of money collected upon an execution, unless brought within two years. This subsection does not apply to an action for an escape.

Sec. 09.10.080. Actions related to escape to be brought in one year.

A person may not bring an action against a peace officer for the escape of a person arrested or imprisoned on civil process unless the action is commenced within one year.

Sec. 09.10.090. Actions for penalty.

A person may not bring an action upon a statute for the penalty given in whole or in part to the person who will prosecute for the same unless the action is commenced within one year after the commission of the offense. If the action is not commenced within one year by a private party, it may be commenced on behalf of the state within two years after the period of limitation by a private party has expired.

Sec. 09.10.100. Other actions in 10 years.

An action for a cause not otherwise provided for may be commenced within 10 years after the cause of action has accrued.

Sec. 09.10.110. Accrual of cause of action upon mutual, open, and current account.

In an action brought to recover a balance due upon a mutual, open, and current account where there have been reciprocal demands between the parties, the cause of action accrues from the date of the last item proved in the account on either side. But when a period of more than one year elapses between any of a series of items or demands, they are not included as part of the account.

Sec. 09.10.120. Actions in name of state, political subdivisions, or public corporations.

(a) An action brought in the name of or for the benefit of the state, any political subdivision, or public corporation may be commenced only within six years of the date of accrual of the cause of action. However, if the action is for relief on the ground of fraud, the limitation commences from the time of discovery by the aggrieved party of the facts constituting the fraud.

(b) Notwithstanding (a) of this section or another provision of law, the state may bring an action in the name of or for the benefit of the state to (1) quiet or confirm the state's interests in real property, or (2) protect resources held in trust for the public, at any time.

Sec. 09.10.130. Effect of absence from state or concealment.

When the cause of action accrues against a person who is out of the state or concealed in the state, the action may be commenced within the periods provided in this chapter after that person returns to the state or when the concealment ceases. If a person departs from the state or conceals one's person after the cause of action accrues, the time of absence or concealment is not part of the time limited for the commencement of the action.

Sec. 09.10.140. Disabilities of minority and incompetency.

(a) Except as provided under (c) of this section, if a person entitled to bring an action mentioned in this chapter is at the time the cause of action accrues either (1) under the age of majority, or (2) incompetent by reason of mental illness or mental disability, the time of a disability identified in (1) or (2) of this subsection is not a part of the time limit for the commencement of the action. Except as provided in (b) of this section, the period within which the action may be brought is not extended in any case longer than two years after the disability ceases.

(b) An action based on a claim of sexual abuse under AS 09.55.650 that is subject to AS 09.10.065 (b) may be brought more than three years after the plaintiff reaches the age of majority if it is brought under the following circumstances:

(1) if the claim asserts that the defendant committed one act of sexual abuse on the plaintiff, the plaintiff shall commence the action within three years after the plaintiff discovered or through use of reasonable diligence should have discovered that the act caused the injury or condition;

(2) if the claim asserts that the defendant committed more than one act of sexual abuse on the plaintiff, the plaintiff shall commence the action within three years after the plaintiff discovered or through use of reasonable diligence should have discovered the effect of the injury or condition attributable to the series of acts; a claim based on an assertion of more than one act of sexual abuse is not limited to plaintiff's first discovery of the relationship between any one of those acts and the injury or condition, but may be based on plaintiff's discovery of the effect of the series of acts.

(c) In an action for personal injury of a person who was under the age of eight years at the time of the injury, the time period before the person's eighth birthday is not a part of the time limit imposed under AS 09.10.070 (a) for commencing the civil action.

Sec. 09.10.150. Death of a party before expiration of limitation period. [Repealed, Sec. 5 ch 78 SLA 1972].

Repealed or Renumbered

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